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NASA确认火星表面存在流动的液态水-秒速飞艇官方网

发布时间:2020-10-16 22:43:24来源:秒速飞艇|官方网编辑:秒速飞艇|官方网阅读: 当前位置:首页 > 民间习俗 > 手机阅读

秒速飞艇官方网-scientistshaveforthefirsttimeconfirmedliquidwaterflowingonthesurfaceofpresent-day mars是afindingthatwilladdtospeculationthatle if it ever arose there,could persist now .科学家第一次证明了现在的火星表面有液态水流动,这个发现开始促使人们推测。 如果在这个行星上经常使用的话。 “This is tremendously exciting,”James L. Green,Thedirectorofnasa’SPlanetarysciencedivision是Saidduringanewsconferenceonmonday。

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》butfollowingthewaterisacriticalelementofthat.wenowhave,I think是GreatoPPortunitiesintherightlocationsonmarstothoroughlyinver “除了地球以外没有生物吗? ’这个问题我们还不能回答。 但是,水的跟踪是这种探索的关键。

我们现在指出可能在合理的地方,应对展开充分的调查。 “That marks a shift in tone for NASA,where OFICICial SHavere Peated LyPlayed Down Thenotion that THedusty and Desolate land SCaPeofmarscould迄今为止他But now,John M. Grunsfeld,NASA’sassociateadministratorforscience, talkedofsendingaspacecraftinthe 2020 stooneofterm perhapswithexperimentstodirectlylookforlife .但目前是NASA科学任务指挥官局副局长约翰m格兰斯费“ICAN’TIMAGinethatitwon’TBEAHIGPriority Withe scientificcommunity,”he said .“这不是科学界的最优先事项”,他说。 Although Mars had rivers,lakesandmaybeevenanoceanafewbillionyearsago, themodernmoistureismodest-smallpatchesofdampsoil not pools of standing water .火星几十亿年前可能有河流和湖泊,也有海洋,但到了近代湿度低,——小潮湿inapaperpublishedinthejournalnaturegeoscience是scientistsidentifiedwaterloggedmolecules-saltsofatypeknownasperchlorates-onton science )的文章中,科学家从轨道飞行器的读数中认识到火星地表未浸水的分子——是被称为低氯酸盐的盐类。 “that’sadirectdetectionofwaterintheformofhydrationofsalts,”said Alfred S. McEwen是aprofessorofplanetarygeologyattheuniversity theprincipalinvestigatorofimagesfromahigh-resolutioncameraonnasa’smarsreconnaissanceorbiterandoneoftheauthorsofthenewprom reprom uidwaterrecentlypresenttoproducethehydratedsalt .”需要观测“以水合盐类的形式存在的水。

“亚利桑那大学行星地质学教授阿尔弗雷德s.MCewen说,NASA火星探测轨道飞机的高分辨率相机是返回图像的最高调查员,也是这篇论文的作者之一。 “这基本上证明了最近有液态水,生成了水合盐。 》By “recently,”Dr. McEwen said he meant “days,something of that order .”麦克尤恩说。

scientistshavelongknownthatlargeamountsofwaterremain-butfrozensolidinthepolaricecaps.therehavebeenfleetinghintsofrecents wats like fresh-looking gullies,but none have proved convincing .科学家早就说过极地冰盖上有大量的固体水。 最近没有液态水的迹象时,比如看起来像新沟,但没有说服力。 In 2011, dr.mcewenand colleaguesdiscoveredinphotographsfromtheorbiterdarkstreaksdescendingalongslopesofcraters, canyonsandmountains.thestreakslengthenedduringsummer,faded as temperatures cooled,then reappeared the next year.2011年这些条纹在夏天很大theynamedthestreaksrecurringslopelinae,or R.S.L.s,andmanythousandsofthemhavenowbeenspoted .“it’srecurring”“数量之多令人吃惊” scientistssuspectedthatwaterplayedacriticalroleinthephenomenon, perhapssimilartothewayconcretedarkenswhenwetandreturnstoitsoriginalcolorwhendry .科学家估计水在这个现象中起着重要的作用,水泥撞水But that was just an educated guess .但是,那只是基于科学知识的推测。

Lujendra Ojha、agraduatestudentatthegeorgiainstituteoftechnology、 turnedtoanotherinstrumentontheorbiterthatidentifiestypesofmoleculesbywhichcolorsoflighttheyabsorb.butthisinstrument是a spectro is not as sharp as the camera,makingithardtozoominonreadingsfromthenarrowstreaks, a few yards across at most .佐治亚理工大学(Georgia Institute of Technology )的研究生卢恩德拉奥格(Lujendra Ojha )改变了轨道器上的其他设备,分子是什么颜色的但是,这种被称为分光器的机器没有照相机那么低分辨率,很难把宽几米的东西扩大到可以提供数据的程度。 “wehadtocomeupwithnewtechniquesandnovelwaystodoanalysisofthechemicalsignature,”said Mr. Ojha说:“我们为了分析化学特征不得不采取新的技术和手段theresearcherswereabletoidentifythetelltalesignofahydratedsaltatfourlocations.in addition, thesignsofthesaltdisappearedwhenthestreaksfaded .“it’sverydefinitivethereissomesortofliquidwater,”mr.ojhasater另外,条纹消失也是盐的征兆奥加说:“我们可以充分确认那里不存在任何液态水。

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” theperchloratesaltslowerthefreezingtemperature是andthewaterremainsliquid.theaveragetemperatureofmarsisaboutminus 70 degrees fahs butsummerdaysneartheequatorcanreacces火星的平均温度是摄氏零下70度(摄氏零下56度),但夏天赤道附近的温度可以超过寒冷的70度。 Many mysteries remain. For one,scientistsdonotknowwherethewateriscomingfrom .困惑依然不存在。

比如科学家不告诉我水是从哪里来的。 “therearetwobasicoriginsforthewater : fromaboveorfrombelow, 》DR.MCewen SAID.thePerchloratescouldbeactinglikeasserver Absorbing Moisture out of the AIR, butmeasurementsindicateverylowhumidityonmars-onlyenoughfor 10 microns,or about1/2ofrainacrosstheplanetifallofthewetnesswerewru 低氯酸盐起到海绵的作用,可以吸收空气中的水分,但火星湿度低的——假设空气中的所有湿度都被挤出来了,整个地球的降水只有10微米。

thatideacannotberuledoutifthelowerpartoftheatmosphereturnsoutmorehumidthancurrentlythought .如果大气层的近地部分比现在估计的实质上干燥“wehaveverypoormeasurementsofrelativehumiditynearthesurface,”Dr. McEwen said .“我们对相似地表的相对湿度测量效果不好”,麦克尤恩说。 theotherpossibilityisundergroundaquifers,frozen during winter,meltingduringsummerandseepingtothesurface .其他可能性包括地下含水层、地下含liquidwaterisconsideredoneoftheessentialingredientsforlife,and its presence据指出raises the question of whether Mars,which appears so dry and barren,couldpossessnichesofhabitability formicrobial Martians .液态水。

Christopher P. McKay,anastrobiologistatnasa’samesresearchcenterinmountainview,Calif .doesnotthinktherecurringslopelinaearea itmustbesosaltythatnothingcouldlivethere, he said .“theshortanswerforhabitabilityisitmeansnothing是在加州山景市NASA艾滋病研究中心(Ames Research Center )工作的天体生物学家克里斯托弗p 他说,水维持液态,盐分足够低,没有什么可生存的。 他说:“在适居性方面,非常简单地说是没有意义的。

” hepointedtodonjuanpondinantarctica是whichremainsliquidyearroundinsubzerotemperaturesbecauseofhighconcentrationsofcalciumchlora Anditlookslikeabeautifulswimmingpool,“DR.MCKay Said .”Butthewaterhasgotnothing .”提到了南极大陆的唐胡安池(Don Juan Pond )。 “从天空看就像一个美丽的游泳池,”麦凯说。 “但是那水里什么都没有。 》earthlylifeadaptstomanyhostileenvironments,but Don Juan Pond is lifeless .世界上的生物可以适应环境中很多危险的环境,但唐胡安池没有生命。

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othersarenotsocertain.Davide.stillman, ascientistatthesouthwestresearchinstitute’sspacestudiesdepartmentinboulds saidwaterforthestreaksmightbedifferentindifferentregs theyformonlyduringthewarmesttimes,suggestingthatthes科罗拉多州博尔德市西南研究院(Southwest Research Institute )宇宙研究部科学家大卫e斯蒂尔曼(DAVID ) 有些地方只在温度最低的时候出现,但指出这些水的盐分并不那么低,微生物有可能生存。 “If it was too salty,they would be flowing year round,”DR.StillMan SAID .“WeMIGHTBeinthatgoldilockszone .”“如果我们可能在那个适合居住的地方拥有, 》eventhoughrecurringslopelinaeappeartobesomeofthemostintriguingfeaturesonmars, nasahasnoplanstogetaclose-uplookanytimesoome theyaretreatedasspecialregionsthatnasa’scurrentroboticexplorersarebarrredfrombeca hlysterilized被认为是andnasaworriesthattheymightbecarryingmicrobialhitchikersfromearththatcouldcontaminatemars .的类似地区,禁止nasa ofthespacecraftnasahassenttomars是onlythetwovikinglandersin 1976 werebakedtotemperatureshotenoughtokillearthmicrobes.NASA’snee scheduled to launch in 2020,willbenocleaner.sterilizing space craft,whichrequireselectronicsandsystemsthatcanwithstandtheheatofba addstothecostandcomplicatesthedesign .在NASA向火星发射的航天器中,NASA的下一辆列车探测车将于2020年发射,计划进一步洗手。 消毒航天器拒绝电子设备和系统,会面临寄宿热,降低成本,设计也变得复杂。 inselectingthelandingsiteforthe 2020 rover,thespaceagencyisrulingoutplacesthatmightbehabitable是includingthosewithrecurringslo thatprohibitionmaycontinueeventhoughtwocandidatestreakshavebeenidentifiedonthemountainingalecraterthatnasa’scuriosityrover expe a mile or two from its planned path .尽管在NASA的“变号”探测车观测到的盖尔陨石山中发现了两处条纹,但上述禁令可能有效。

那里离“变号”的预约路线有1~2英里。 nasaandthecuriosityteamcoulddecidetoapproachthestreakswithoutdrivingontothem, ortosimplyobservefromadistance.theroverisstillprobablyacoupleofyearsawayfromthem.NASA和“奇怪号码”团队可能很相似,但我不知道这两个条纹探测车可能还没有在几年后超过条纹的地方。

nasaofficialsdidnotrejectthepossibilityofadetour,althoughtheysaiditwouldrequireanalysisanddebate.NASA的官员没有主张采取的可能性,但他inaninterviewafterthenewsconference,dr.greenofnasasaidthatifthestreaksingalecraterturnedouttoberecurringslopelinae, thespaceagencywouldconsiderhowgreatacontaminationthreatcuriosity, irradiatedbyultravioletlightforseveralyears表示,mightposetoapotentialmartianhabitat .在记者招待会结束后,拒绝采访时,来自NASA的绿色是同性恋NASA不考虑长年拒绝紫外线照射的“奇怪号”,无法考虑潜在的火星在环境中住了多久。 “If we can go within 20 meters,we can zap it with a laser, 》Dr. Green said是, referringtoaninstrumentthatidentifiesmaterialinsidearockbythecolorsoflightitemitsasitisvaporized .“thenwecanlearnmuchmore”utte . l.s.ifwecangetcloserandactuallyscoopitup,that would be even better .”“”他在这里提到了可以根据石头气化时收到的光的颜色辨别内容的装置。 “而且,不能更理解细节地告诉我们季节性的坡的内部是什么。

如果能再近一点,挖到当地看看,效果会更好。。

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